Psiconomics

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Tribe meets white man for the first time 1/3 (with narration) (by crazybrity)

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theoddmentemporium:

Galvanic Reanimation of the Dead

In biology, galvanism is the contraction of a muscle that is stimulated by an electric current. The effect was named after the scientist Luigi Galvani, who investigated the effect of electricity on dissected animals in the 18th century. When Galvani was doing some dissection work in his lab, his scalpel touched the body of a frog, and he saw the muscles in the frog’s leg twitch. Galvani referred to the phenomenon as animal electricity, believing that he had discovered a distinct form of electricity. [Source]
Two decades later, Galvani’s nephew, Giovanni Aldini, took the process one step further when he applied it to the corpses of humans. In 1803 he performed experiments in public on the severed heads of ‘malefactors,’ despatched in Bologna and London. The following accounts demonstrate what was witnessed:

"George Forster was hung … at Newgate Prison, for the drowning of his wife and youngest child in the Paddington Canal. After hanging for an hour in sub-zero temperatures, Aldini procured the body and began his galvanic experiments. On the first application of the process to the face, the jaws of the deceased criminal began to quiver, and the adjoining muscles were horribly contorted, and one eye was actually opened. In the subsequent part of the process the right hand was raised and clenched, and the legs and thighs were set in motion. Mr Pass, the beadle of the Surgeons’ Company, who was officially present during this experiment, was so alarmed that he died of fright soon after his return home.”


"[The galvanic] stimulus produced the most horrible contortions and grimaces by the motions of the muscles of the head and face; and an hour and a quarter after death, the arm of one of the bodies was elevated eight inches from the table on which it was supported, and this even when a considerable weight was placed in the hand."

There is much speculation that Aldini’s experiments were the inspiration for Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. 


Marry Shelley’s book was a reflection of it’s time. It was a time when doctors, physicians, scientists, started to think of the human body and the human mind as a machine, something like Frankenstein, that you could maybe even put together with spare parts. Think about Luigi Galvani now, if you have a bolt of electricity, that might animate this machine and bring it to life. Now, Frankenstein wasn’t a real success as a human, but  he does embody the concept that human condition maybe a purely physical/material condition. If that is true, then we can assume that human behavior must reflect natural laws and that put it squarely into the realm of science. Human behavior suddenly becomes something we can study scientifically… View high resolution

theoddmentemporium:

Galvanic Reanimation of the Dead

In biology, galvanism is the contraction of a muscle that is stimulated by an electric current. The effect was named after the scientist Luigi Galvani, who investigated the effect of electricity on dissected animals in the 18th century. When Galvani was doing some dissection work in his lab, his scalpel touched the body of a frog, and he saw the muscles in the frog’s leg twitch. Galvani referred to the phenomenon as animal electricity, believing that he had discovered a distinct form of electricity. [Source]

Two decades later, Galvani’s nephew, Giovanni Aldini, took the process one step further when he applied it to the corpses of humans. In 1803 he performed experiments in public on the severed heads of ‘malefactors,’ despatched in Bologna and London. The following accounts demonstrate what was witnessed:

"George Forster was hung … at Newgate Prison, for the drowning of his wife and youngest child in the Paddington Canal. After hanging for an hour in sub-zero temperatures, Aldini procured the body and began his galvanic experiments. On the first application of the process to the face, the jaws of the deceased criminal began to quiver, and the adjoining muscles were horribly contorted, and one eye was actually opened. In the subsequent part of the process the right hand was raised and clenched, and the legs and thighs were set in motion. Mr Pass, the beadle of the Surgeons’ Company, who was officially present during this experiment, was so alarmed that he died of fright soon after his return home.”

"[The galvanic] stimulus produced the most horrible contortions and grimaces by the motions of the muscles of the head and face; and an hour and a quarter after death, the arm of one of the bodies was elevated eight inches from the table on which it was supported, and this even when a considerable weight was placed in the hand."

There is much speculation that Aldini’s experiments were the inspiration for Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein

Marry Shelley’s book was a reflection of it’s time. It was a time when doctors, physicians, scientists, started to think of the human body and the human mind as a machine, something like Frankenstein, that you could maybe even put together with spare parts. Think about Luigi Galvani now, if you have a bolt of electricity, that might animate this machine and bring it to life. Now, Frankenstein wasn’t a real success as a human, but he does embody the concept that human condition maybe a purely physical/material condition. If that is true, then we can assume that human behavior must reflect natural laws and that put it squarely into the realm of science. Human behavior suddenly becomes something we can study scientifically…

BROCA’s and WERNICKE’s Areas


The process of identifying the parts of the brain that are involved in language began in 1861, when Paul Broca, a French neurosurgeon, examined the brain of a recently deceased patient who had had an unusual disorder. Though he had been able to understand spoken language and did not have any motor impairments of the mouth or tongue that might have affected his ability to speak, he could neither speak a complete sentence nor express his thoughts in writing. The only articulate sound he could make was the syllable “tan”, which had come to be used as his name.

When Broca autopsied Tan’s brain, he found a sizable lesion in the left inferior frontal cortex. Subsequently, Broca studied eight other patients, all of whom had similar language deficits along with lesions in their left frontal hemisphere. This led him to make his famous statement that “we speak with the left hemisphere” and to identify, for the first time, the existence of a “language centre” in the posterior portion of the frontal lobe of this hemisphere. Now known as Broca’s area, this was in fact the first area of the brain to be associated with a specific function—in this case, language.

Ten years later, Carl Wernicke, a German neurologist, discovered another part of the brain, this one involved in understanding language, in the posterior portion of the left temporal lobe. People who had a lesion at this location could speak, but their speech was often incoherent and made no sense.

Wernicke’s observations have been confirmed many times since. Neuroscientists now agree that running around the lateral sulcus (also known as the fissure of Sylvius) in the left hemisphere of the brain, there is a sort of neural loop that is involved both in understanding and in producing spoken language. At the frontal end of this loop lies Broca’s area, which is usually associated with the production of language, or language outputs . At the other end (more specifically, in the superior posterior temporal lobe), lies Wernicke’s area, which is associated with the processing of words that we hear being spoken, or language inputs. Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area are connected by a large bundle of nerve fibres called the arcuate fasciculus.

This language loop is found in the left hemisphere in about 90% of right-handed persons and 70% of left-handed persons, language being one of the functions that is performed asymmetrically in the brain. Surprisingly, this loop is also found at the same location in deaf persons who use sign language. This loop would therefore not appear to be specific to heard or spoken language, but rather to be more broadly associated with whatever the individual’s primary language modality happens to be.

(Source: thebrain.mcgill.ca)

Descartes wrote Le Monde (The World, 1630) and L’Homme (Man, 1633), major works of ‘mechanical philosophy.’ It is from Descartes that we derive ‘Cartesian dualism,’ the Renaissance notion that one could embody both a spiritual and a secular identity. He suggested that the body could be considered a machine entirely separate from the spiritual world. In many ways Descartes philosophy epitomizes the inevitable outcome of the Renaissance, conflict between science and religion. Descartes was rational, but a stoicist. He, like St. Augustine and St. Tomas Aquianas before him, thought that there was a cosmic balance between the spiritual world and the natural world. Descartes can be contrasted with his contemporaries, the empiricists: Hobbes, Berkeley, Rousseau, and Hume, the forebears of the Age of Reason.

Green Porno Educational Videos - Bee

This newly advanced prosthetic limb is the result of a collaboration between the University of Pittsburgh and Johns Hopkins University. The arm has the ability to accurately detect vibration,temperature, contact with objects and degree of pressure. It also has up to 27 degrees of freedom of moment, making it far more than a cosmetic addition.
But the biggest attribute of the arm is its ability to be controlled by thought, the one feature viewed as the last hurdle to truly functional mechanical replacement limbs.

This newly advanced prosthetic limb is the result of a collaboration between the University of Pittsburgh and Johns Hopkins University. The arm has the ability to accurately detect vibration,temperature, contact with objects and degree of pressure. It also has up to 27 degrees of freedom of moment, making it far more than a cosmetic addition.

But the biggest attribute of the arm is its ability to be controlled by thought, the one feature viewed as the last hurdle to truly functional mechanical replacement limbs.

(via wildcat2030)

Dancing mania (also known as dancing plague, choreomania, St John’s Dance and, historically, St. Vitus’ Dance) was a social phenomenon that occurred primarily in mainland Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries. It involved groups of people dancing erratically, sometimes thousands at a time. The mania affected men, women, and children, who danced until they collapsed from exhaustion. One of the first major outbreaks was in Aachen, Germany, in 1374, and it quickly spread throughout Europe; one particularly notable outbreak occurred in Strasbourg in 1518.
Affecting thousands of people across several centuries, dancing mania was not an isolated event, and was well documented in contemporary reports. It was nevertheless poorly understood, and remedies were based on guesswork. Generally, musicians accompanied dancers, to help ward off the mania, but this tactic sometimes backfired by encouraging more to join in. There is no consensus among modern-day scholars as to the cause of dancing mania.
The several theories proposed range from religious cults being behind the processions to people dancing to relieve themselves of stress and put the poverty of the period out of their minds. It is, however, thought to be as a mass psychogenic illness in which the occurrence of similar physical symptoms, with no known physical cause, affect a large group of people as a form of social influence. View high resolution

Dancing mania (also known as dancing plague, choreomania, St John’s Dance and, historically, St. Vitus’ Dance) was a social phenomenon that occurred primarily in mainland Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries. It involved groups of people dancing erratically, sometimes thousands at a time. The mania affected men, women, and children, who danced until they collapsed from exhaustion. One of the first major outbreaks was in Aachen, Germany, in 1374, and it quickly spread throughout Europe; one particularly notable outbreak occurred in Strasbourg in 1518.
Affecting thousands of people across several centuries, dancing mania was not an isolated event, and was well documented in contemporary reports. It was nevertheless poorly understood, and remedies were based on guesswork. Generally, musicians accompanied dancers, to help ward off the mania, but this tactic sometimes backfired by encouraging more to join in. There is no consensus among modern-day scholars as to the cause of dancing mania.
The several theories proposed range from religious cults being behind the processions to people dancing to relieve themselves of stress and put the poverty of the period out of their minds. It is, however, thought to be as a mass psychogenic illness in which the occurrence of similar physical symptoms, with no known physical cause, affect a large group of people as a form of social influence.

“Futurology has always bounced around between common sense, nonsense and a healthy dose of wishful thinking […] For a thousand years people consulted the Oracle at Delphi in ancient Greece in an attempt to know what the future held [see “Questioning the Delphic Oracle,” by John R. Hale Jelle Zeilinga de Boer, Jeffrey P. Chanton and Henry A. Spiller; Scientific American, August 2003]. The Oracle was a priestess in a cave who became disoriented by volcanic fumes and babbled incoherently. These days we don’t believe any of that nonsense. Instead we can see the future because we consult thinkers and scientists and journalists and, well, all sorts of clever people. On second thoughts, perhaps the Oracle at Delphi was more reliable. […]”

The Future: A History of Prediction from the Archives of Scientific American

(via wildcat2030)

Meet Boilerplate: the history’s mechanical marvel! View high resolution

Meet Boilerplate: the history’s mechanical marvel!

The next decade or so will be defined more by fluidity than by any new, settled paradigm; if there is a pattern to all this, it is that there is no pattern. The most valuable insight is that we all are, in a critical sense, in a time of chaos.
— Fast Company on ´Generation Flux`

(Source: inthenoosphere)